首页 | 家园 | 百科 | 下载 | 书库 | 仪器 | 展会 |人才 | 公司 | 网址 | 问答 | 论坛 | 注册 | 通行证登录 | English

生物行

生物行   进展 | 摘要 | 人物 | 医药 | 疾病 | 技术 | 健康 | 能源   生物航   供应 | 求购 | 公司 | 展会 | 要发布
论坛   神经科学 | 神经系统疾病 | 实验技术 | 求职招聘 | 器材试剂 | 文献检索 | 读书笔记 | 考试招生 | 软件使用
当前位置: 主页 > 生物资源 > 考研考博 > 笔记 >

石正国提供的上海生科院生化考研笔记、资料、试题及答案分析(3)

时间:2005-12-30 20:56来源:Internet 作者:bioguider 阅读:

 


      Nobel Prize in Chemistry Winners 2000-1901
     brought to you by  The Nobel Prize Internet Archive
2000    The prize is being awarded with one half jointly to: ALAN J. HEEGER, ALAN G. MACDIARMID, and HIDEKI SHIRAKAWA for the discovery and development of conductive polymers.
1999      AHMED ZEWAIL for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy.
1998     The prize was awarded for pioneering contributions in developing methods that can be used for theoretical studies of the properties of molecules and the chemical processes in which they are involved. The prize was divided equally between: WALTER KOHN for his development of the density-functional theory and JOHN A. POPLE for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry.
1997      The prize was divided, one half being awarded jointly to: PAUL D. BOYER and JOHN E. WALKER for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and with one half to: JENS C. SKOU for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+-ATPase.
1996      The prize was awarded jointly to: ROBERT F. CURL, Jr. , SIR HAROLD W. KROTO , and RICHARD E. SMALLEY for their discovery of fullerenes.
1995      The prize was awarded jointly to: PAUL CRUTZEN , MARIO MOLINA , and F. SHERWOOD ROWLAND for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone.
1994    GEORGE A. OLAH for his contribution to carbocation chemistry.
1993     The prize was awarded for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry equally between: KARY B. MULLIS for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. and MICHAEL SMITH for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleiotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies.
1992      RUDOLPH A. MARCUS for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems.
1991      RICHARD R. ERNST for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
1990      ELIAS JAMES COREY for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis.
1989      The prize was awarded jointly to: SIDNEY ALTMAN and THOMAS R. CECH for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA.
1988      The prize was awarded jointly to: JOHANN DEISENHOFER , ROBERT HUBER and HARTMUT MICHEL for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre.
1987     The prize was awarded jointly to: ONALD J. CRAM , JEAN-MARIE LEHN and CHARLES J. PEDERSEN for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity.
1986    The prize was awarded jointly to: DUDLEY R. HERSCHBACH , YUAN T. LEE and JOHN C. POLANYI for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes.
1985     The prize was awarded jointly to: HERBERT A. HAUPTMAN and JEROME KARLE for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures.
1984      ROBERT BRUCE MERRIFIELD for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix.
1983      HENRY TAUBE for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes.
1982     SIR AARON KLUG for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nuclei acid-protein complexes.
1981       The prize was awarded jointly to: KENICHI FUKUI and ROALD HOFFMANN for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions.
1980      The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: PAUL BERG for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA and the other half jointly to: WALTER GILBERT and FREDERICK SANGER for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids.
1979      The prize was divided equally between: HERBERT C. BROWN and GEORG WITTIG for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis.
1978    PETER D. MITCHELL for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory.
1977      ILYA PRIGOGINE for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures.
1976      WILLIAM N.. LIPSCOMB for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding.
1975     The prize was divided equally between: SIR JOHN WARCUP CORNFORTH for his work on the stereochemistry of  enzyme-catalyzed reactions  and VLADIMIR PRELOG for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions.
1974       PAUL J. FLORY for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules.
1973     The prize was divided equally between: ERNST OTTO FISCHER and SIR GEOFFREY WILKINSON for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds.
1972      The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: CHRISTIAN B. ANFINSEN for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active confirmation and the other half jointly to: STANFORD MOORE and WILLIAM H. STEIN for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule.
1971      GERHARD HERZBERG for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic stucture and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals.
1970      LUIS F. LELOIR for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates.
1969      The prize was divided equally between: SIR DEREK H. R. BARTON and ODD HASSEL for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry.
1968      LARS ONSAGER for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes.
1967     The prize was divided, one half being awarded to:  ANFRED EIGEN  and the other half jointly to: RONALD GEORGE WREYFORD NORRISH and LORD GEORGE PORTER for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy.
1966       ROBERT S. MULLIKEN for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method.
1965      ROBERT BURNS WOODWARD for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic  synthesis.
1964      DOROTHY CROWFOOT HODGKIN for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances.
1963     The prize was divided equally between: KARL ZIEGLER and GIULIO NATTA for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers.
1962      The prize was divided equally between: MAX FERDINAND PERUTZ and SIR JOHN COWDERY KENDREW for their studies of the structures of globular proteins.
1961      MELVIN CALVIN for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants.
1960      WILLARD FRANK LIBBY for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in  archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science.
1959       JAROSLAV HEYROVSKY for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis.
1958      FREDERICK SANGER for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of  insulin.
1957      LORD ALEXANDER R. TODD for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes.
1956      The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR CYRIL NORMAN HINSHELWOOD and NIKOLAY NIKOLAEVICH SEMENOV for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions.
1955      VINCENT DU VIGNEAUD for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone.
1954     LINUS CARL PAULING for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances.
1953     HERMANN STAUDINGER for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry.
1952     The prize was awarded jointly to: ARCHER JOHN PORTER MARTIN and RICHARD LAURENCE MILLINGTON SYNGE for their invention of partition chromatography.
1951      The prize was awarded jointly to: EDWIN MATTISON MC MILLAN and GLENN THEODORE SEABORG for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements.
1950       The prize was awarded jointly to: OTTO PAUL HERMANN DIELS and KURT ALDER for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis.
1949     WILLIAM FRANCIS GIAUQUE for his contributions in the field of chemical  thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures.
1948      ARNE WILHELM KAURIN TISELIUS for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins.
1947      SIR ROBERT ROBINSON for his investigations on plant products of biological
importance, especially the alkaloids.
1946      The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: JAMES BATCHELLER SUMNER for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized. the other half jointly to JOHN HOWARD NORTHROP and WENDELL MEREDITH STANLEY for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form.
1945      ARTTURI ILMARI VIRTANEN for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method.
1944     OTTO HAHN for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei.
1943     GEORGE DE HEVESY for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes.
1942-1940    The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.
1939     ADOLF FRIEDRICH JOHANN BUTENANDT for his work on sex hormones. (Caused by the authorities of his country to decline the award but later received the diploma and the medal).and LEOPOLD RUZICKA for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes.
1938     RICHARD KUHN for his work on carotenoids and vitamins. (Caused by the
uthorities of his country to decline the award but later received the diploma and the medal.)
1937      The prize was divided equally between: SIR WALTER NORMAN HAWORTH for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C. andPAUL KARRER for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2.
1936      PETRUS (PETER) JOSEPHUS WILHELMUS DEBYE for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases.
1935       The prize was awarded jointly to: FRIC JOLIOT and IRE JOLIOT-CURIE in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements.
1934      HAROLD CLAYTON UREY for his discovery of heavy hydrogen.
1933      The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.
1932      IRVING LANGMUIR for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry.
1931      The prize was awarded jointly to: CARL BOSCH and FRIEDRICH BERGIUS in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods.
1930       HANS FISCHER for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin.
1929      The prize was divided equally between: SIR ARTHUR HARDEN and HANS KARL AUGUST SIMON VON EULER-CHELPIN for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes.
1928     ADOLF OTTO REINHOLD WINDAUS for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins.
1927     HEINRICH OTTO WIELAND for his investigations of the constitution of the bile
acids and related substances.
1926      THE (THEODOR) SVEDBERG for his work on disperse systems.
1925       RICHARD ADOLF ZSIGMONDY for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry.
1924       The prize money for 1924 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
1923      FRITZ PREGL for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances.
1922      FRANCIS WILLIAM ASTON for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule.
1921      FREDERICK SODDY , for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes.
1920      WALTHER HERMANN NERNST in recognition of his work in thermochemistry.
1919      The prize money for 1919 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
1918      FRITZ HABER for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements.
1917-1916       The prize money for 1917-1916 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
1915     RICHARD MARTIN WILLSTTER for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll.
1914       THEODORE WILLIAM RICHARDS , in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements.
1913       ALFRED WERNER in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry.
1912     The prize was divided equally between: VICTOR GRIGNARD for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry and PAUL SABATIER for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years.
1911      MARIE CURIE, nMarie Sklodowska, in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element.
1910       OTTO WALLACH in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds.
1909      WILHELM OSTWALD in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction.
1908      LORD ERNEST RUTHERFORD for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances.
1907      EDUARD BUCHNER for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cellfree fermentation.
1906     HENRI MOISSAN in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him.
1905      JOHANN FRIEDRICH WILHELM ADOLF VON BAEYER in recognition of his services in the  advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds.
1904      SIR WILLIAM RAMSAY in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system.
1903      SVANTE AUGUST ARRHENIUS in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation.
1902       HERMANN EMIL FISCHER in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses.
1901      JACOBUS HENRICUS VAN'T HOFF in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions.

                     生物化学研究的诺贝尔奖
                            (1952——1999)
1999年 生理学或医学奖
       美国纽约洛克菲勒大学的Gunter Blobel获得1999年诺贝尔生理学/医学奖。他的贡献是发现蛋白质具有控制其运输和定位的内在信号。
1998年 生理学或医学奖
        Rolert F.Furchgott(美国),Louis J.Ignarro(美国)和 Ferid Murad(美
国),发现NO(一氧化氮)是心血管系统的信号分子
1997年 生理学或医学奖
        Stanley B.Prusiner(美国),发现一种新型的致病因子——感染性蛋白质颗粒Prion
化学奖
        Paul.Boyer(美国)和 John E.Walker(英国),阐明 ATP酶促合成机制
        Jens C.Skou(丹麦),发现输送离子的 Na+ ,K+-ATP酶
1996年 生理学或医学奖
        Peter C.eherty(美国)和 ROlf M.Zinkernagel(瑞士),发现 T细胞对病毒感染细胞的识别受MHC(主要组织相容性复合体)限制
1994年 生理学或医学奖
        lfred G.Gilman(美国)和 Martin ROdbell(美国),发现 G蛋白及其在细胞内信号转导中的作用
1993年 生理学或医学奖
        Richard J.ROberts(美国)和 PhilliP A.SharP(美国),发现断裂基因化学奖
        Kary n.wtullis(美国),发明 PCR方法
        Michael Smith(加拿大),建立 DNA合成用于定点诱变研究
1992年 生理学或医学奖
        Edmond H.Fischer(美国)和 Edwin G.Krebs(美国),发现可逆蛋白质
磷酸化是一种生物调节机制
1989年 生理学或医学奖
        Harold E.Varmus(美国)和J.Michael Bishop(美国),发现反转录病毒
癌基因的细胞起源
化学奖
        Sidney Altman(美国)和 Thorn R.Cech(美国),发现 RNA的催化性质
1988年 生理学或医学奖
        James W.Black(英国),ertrude B.Elion(美国)和 Gong H.Hitchings(美国),发现“代谢”有关药物处理的重要原则
1986年 生理学或医学奖
        Stanley Cohen(美国)和 Rita Levi-Montalcini(意大利),发现生长因子
1985年 生理学或医学奖
        Michael  S.Brown(美国)和Joseph L.Goldstein(美国),发现胆固醇代谢的调节作用
1984年 化学奖
        Bruce Merrfield(美国),建立和发展(蛋白质)因相化学合成方法
1983年 生理学或医学奖
        Barbar McClintock(美国),发现可移动遗传元件
1982年 生理学或医学奖
        Sune K.Mtrom(瑞典),Bent.Samuelsson(瑞典)和 John R.Vane(英国),发现前列腺素和相关生物活性物质
化学奖
        Aam Klug(英国),发展晶体电子显微镜技术测定核酸一蛋白质复合物的结构
1980年 化学奖
        Paul Berg(美国),关于核酸化学,特别是重组 DNA的出色研究
        Walter Glbert(美国)和 FrederiCk Sanger(英国),测定 DNA中的碱基序列
1978年 生理学或医学奖
        Werner Arber(瑞士),Daniel Nathans(美)和 Hmiltor O.Smith(美),发现限制性内切酶并应用于解决分子遗传学问题
化学奖
        Peter Mitchell(英国),通过化学渗透理论了解生物能转换
1977年 生理学或医学奖
        ROger Guillemin(美国)和 ndrew V.SChally(美国),发现脑多肽激素的生成
        ROSalyn S.Yalow 美国),建立多肽激素的放射免疫测定法
1976年 生理学或医学奖
        Ba-ruch S.Bltirnberg(美)和 D.Carletor Gidusek(美),发现感染(乙型肝炎、库鲁病)的起源和散播的新机制
1975年 生理学或医学奖
        David Baltimore(美国),RenatO Bulbecco(英国)和 HOWard M.Tdrin
(美国),发现肿瘤病毒和细胞遗传物质的相互作用,提出前病毒理论
化学奖
        JOhn Warcup Chmforth(英国),酶催化反应的立体化学
1972年 生理学或医学奖
        Gerald M.Edelman(美国)和 Rodney R.Porter(英国),确定抗体的化学结构
化学奖
        Christian B.nfinsen(美国),RNase的研究,提出氨基酸序列与生物活性构象间的联系
        Stanford Moors(美国)和 William H.Stein(美国),关于 RNase化学结构与活性中心的催化活性间联系的新见解
1971年 生理学或医学奖
        Earl.Sutherand(美国),发现激素(如 cAMP)作用机制
1970年 化学奖。
        Luis F.Lelhr(阿根廷)发现糖一核苷酸及它糖类生物合成中的功用
1968年 生理学或医学奖
        Robert W.HOlley(美国),Har G.Khorana(美国)和Marshall.Nirenbeng(美国),阐明蛋白质生物合成中遗传密码及其功能
1965年 生理学或医学奖
        Francois Jacob(法国),ndre L、ff(法国)和 JaCOques Monod(法国),发现酶和病毒合成的基因调节
1964年 生理学或医学奖
         Konard Bloch(美国)和 Feoder Lgnen(德国),发现胆固醇和脂肪酸代谢的机制和调节
化学奖
        Derothy Crowfoot Hodgkin(英国),用 X射线技术测定重要生化物质的结构
1962年 生理学或医学奖
       Francis H.C. Crick(英国),James D.Watson(美国)和 Maurice H.F. Wilkins(英国),发现核酸的分子结构(DNA双螺旋)及其对于活性物质中信息转移的重要性
化学奖
       Max F.Perutz(英国)和 JOhn C.Kendrew(英国),关于球状蛋白质(血红蛋白、肌红蛋白)结构的研究
1959年 生理学或医学奖
       Severo Ochoa(美国)和 Arthur KOrnbefg(美国),发现 RNA和 DNA生物合成机制
1958年 生理学或医学奖
      George W.Beadle(美国)和 Edward L.Tatum(美国),发现化学反应对基因的控制和影响
      Joshua Lederbeng(美国),发现细菌中遗传物质的基因重组和组织
化学奖
      rederick Saflger(英国),蛋白质,特别是胰岛素结构的测定
1957年 化学奖
     Alexander R.Tod(英国),核苷酸和核苷酸辅酶的研究
1955年 生理学或医学奖
     Axel.T.Theorell(瑞典),发现氧化酶的性质和作用方式
1953年 生理学或医学奖
     Hans A.Krebs(英国),发现柠檬酸循环
     Fritz A.Lipthann(美国),发现辅酶 A及其在中间代谢中的重要性
1952年 化学奖
     Archer J.P.Mrtin和 Richard L.M.ynge,发明分配层析 :

                        试   题  篇 

(责任编辑:泉水)
------分隔线----------------------------
发表评论
请自觉遵守互联网相关的政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
用户名: 验证码:点击我更换图片
栏目列表
推荐内容
  • 分子生物学笔记

    第一章 基因的结构 第一节 基因和基因组 一、基因(gene) 是合成一种功能蛋白或RNA分子...