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Milestones in Neuroscience Research(5)

时间:2005-04-03 18:07来源:本站原创 作者:bioguider 阅读:

Charles Scott Sherrington
Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine.


Harvey Cushing
Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine


Egas Moniz
Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine


1950 - present

1950 - Karl Lashley publishes "In Search of the Engram"
1950 - Eugene Roberts and J. Awapara independently identify GABA in the brain
1950 - The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke established (it has gone through several name changes)
1951 - MAO-inhibitors introduced to treat psychotics
1951 - B.F. Skinner describes shaping in a paper titled "How to Teach Animals"
1952 - Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Fielding Huxley first describe the voltage clamp
1953 - Brenda Milner discusses patient HM who suffers from memory loss of hippocampal surgery
1953 - Eugene Aserinski and Nathaniel Kleitman describe rapid eye movements (REM) during sleep
1953 - H. Kluver and E. Barrera introduce Luxol fast blue MBS stain
1953 - Stephen Kuffler publishes work on center-surround, on-off organization of retinal ganglion cell receptive fields
1954 - James Olds describes rewarding effects of hypothalamic stimulation
1954 - John Lilly invents the "isolation tank"
1954 - Chlorpromazine was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
1956 - L. Leksell uses ultrasound to examine the brain
1956 - National Library of Medicine named (was the Army Medical Library)
1956 - Rita Levi-Montalcini and Stanley Cohen isolate and purify nerve growth factor
1957 - W. Penfield and T. Rasmussen devise motor and sensory humunculus
1957 - The American Medical Association recognizes alcoholism as a disease
1958 - Haloperidol introduced as a neuroleptic drug
1959 - P. Karlson and M. Lusher coin the term "pheromone"
1960 - Oleh Hornykiewicz shows that brain dopamine is lower than normal in Parkinson's disease patients
1961 - Georg Von Bekesy awarded the Nobel Prize for his work on the function of the cochlea
1961 - Levadopa successfully treats parkinsonism
1962 - Eldon Foltz performs the first cingulotomy to treat chronic pain
1963 - John Carew Eccles, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Fielding Huxley share Nobel Prize for work on the mechanisms of the neuron cell membrane
1965 - Ronald Melzack and Patrick D. Wall publish gate control theory of pain
1965 - Drug Abuse Control Act
1967 - Ragnar Arthur Granit, Halden Keffer Hartline and George Wald share Nobel Prize for work on the mechanisms of vision
1968 - Alexander Romanovich Luria publishes The Mind of a Mnemonist; A Little Book About a Vast Memory
1968 - National Eye Institute is established
1969 - D.V. Reynolds describes the analgesic effect of electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal gray
1970 - The Society for Neuroscience is formed
1970 - Julius Axelrod, Bernard Katz and Ulf Svante von Euler share Nobel Prize for work on neurotransmitters
1972 - Godfrey N. Hounsfield develops x-ray computed tomography
1973 - Candace Pert and Solomon Snyder demonstrate opioid receptors in brain
1973 - Sinemet is introduced as a treatment for Parkinson's disease
1973 - Konrad Z. Lorenz, Nikolaas Tinbergen and Karl von Frisch share Nobel Prize for work on ethology
1973 - Timothy Bliss and Terje Lomo describe long-term potentiation
1974 - National Institute on Drug Abuse established
1974 - International Association for the Study of Pain founded
1974 - John Hughes and Hans Kosterlitz discover enkephalin
1974 - M.E.Phelps, E.J.Hoffman and M.M.Ter Pogossian develop first PET scanner
1974 - First NMR image (a mouse) is taken
1975 - John Hughes and Hans Kosterlitz publish work on enkephalins
1976 - Choh Hao Li and David Chung publish work on beta-endorphin
1976 - Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann develop the patch-clamp technique
1977 - Roger Guillemin and Andrew Victor Schally share Nobel Prize for work on peptides in the brain
1981 - David Hunter Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel-Nobel Prize-visual system
1981 - Roger Wolcott Sperry awarded Nobel Prize-functions brain hemispheres
1982 - Bengt Ingemar Bergstrom, John Robert Vane and Sune K. Bergstrom awarded Nobel Prize for the discovery of prostaglandins
1986 - Stanley Cohen and Rita Levi-Montalcini awarded Nobel prize for their work on the control of nerve cell growth
1987 - Fluoxetine (Prozac) introduced as treatment for depression
1990 - U.S. President George Bush declares the decade starting in 1990 the "Decade of the Brain"
1991 - Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann share the Nobel Prize for their work on the function of single ion channels
1992 - National Institute on Drug Abuse becomes part of the National Institutes of Health
1993 - The gene responsible for Huntington's disease is identified
1994 - Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell share the Nobel Prize for their discovery of G-protein coupled receptors and their role in signal transduction
1997 - Stanley B. Prusiner awarded the Nobel Prize for the discovery of prions; a new biological principle of infection
2000 - Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric Kandel share the Nobel Prize for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system
2004 - Linda B. Buck and Richard Axel share the Nobel Prize for their discoveries about odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system

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