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石正国提供的上海生科院生化考研笔记、资料、试题及答案分析(2)

时间:2005-12-30 20:56来源:Internet 作者:bioguider 阅读:


◆◎     表示修饰基团在碱基上的写在碱基符号左方,表示修饰基团在核糖上的写在碱基符号左方。
◆◎     Am表示:2’-O-甲基腺苷。ψ表示:假尿嘧啶核苷。DHU表示:二氢尿嘧啶核苷。
◆◎     双螺旋结构模型的主要依据有:X-光衍射数据、Norweger研究、Chargaff规则、电位滴定行为。
◆◎     原核细胞中,DNA常与多胺(精胺、亚精胺)结合;正核细胞中DNA一般与组蛋白结合。
◆◎     提纯的DNA为白色纤维状固体,RNA为白色粉末,不溶于有机溶剂。
◆◎     琼脂糖凝胶电泳一般分离较大的分子,聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳用于分离较小的分子。
◆◎     核酸的变性指核酸双螺旋的氢键的断裂,变成单链。核酸的降解是指多核苷酸链上的共价键(3’,5’-磷酸二酯键)的断裂。
◆◎     变性后DNA的粘度降低,浮力密度升高,生物活性丧失。DNA的变性是爆发式的。
◆◎     DNA制品应保存在较高浓度的缓冲液或溶液中。常用1M/L的NaCl保存。
◆◎     苯丙氨酸、酪氨酸、色氨酸在近紫外区有光吸收是因为其R基团上含有苯环共轭双键系统。
◆◎     含两个以上肽键的化合物在碱性溶液中与铜离子生成紫红色到蓝紫色的络合物,称双缩脲反应。
◆◎     蛋白一级结构又称共价结构。包括肽链的数目、端基组成、氨基酸序列和二硫键位置。
◎     单体蛋白是由几个独立的肽段以二硫键连接而成的小分子蛋白。
◆◎     蛋白质变性的表现有:⑴丧失生物活性;⑵溶解度降低,粘度加大,扩散系数变小;⑶化学性质的变化;⑷对蛋白酶降解敏感性加大。
◆◎     蛋白质变性主要是由蛋白质分子内部的结构发生改变而引起的。
◆◎     血浆脂蛋白按其密度分为:乳糜微粒、极低密度脂蛋白、低密度脂蛋白、高密度脂蛋白,由脂蛋白、磷脂、脂肪、胆固醇组成,是各种脂质在体内的运输形式。
◆◎     活性中心是指酶分子中直接和底物结合,并和酶的催化作用直接有关的部位。有两个功能部位:结合部位和催化部位。
◆◎     酶浓缩液加入等体积的甘油,于-20℃保存。
◆◎     维生素B2是核躺醇与6,7-二甲基异咯嗪和缩合物。
◆◎     生物素的结构为带有戊酸侧链的噻吩与尿素结合的骈环。
◆◎     叶酸分子由蝶啶、对氨基苯甲酸、L-谷氨酸连接二而成。
◆◎     叶酸参与核酸的合成,是骨髓巨红细胞、白细胞等细胞成熟和分裂所必需的物质。
◆◎     维生素C是一种己糖酸内酯。
◆◎     植物中,维生素C、谷胱甘肽、NADP+的氧化还原反应相偶联,是呼吸系统的基础。
◆◎     硫辛酸是含硫的脂肪酸,是丙酮酸脱氢酶、α-酮戊二酸脱氢酶的辅基,在转酰基中起作用。
◆◎     维生素D是固醇类物质。
◆◎     糖链突出于细胞膜表面是细胞间识别的基础。
◆◎     胰凝乳蛋白酶专一地切断苯丙氨酸和亮氨酸的羧端肽键。
◆◎     酶蛋白的荧光主要来自色氨酸与酪氨酸。
◆◎     血红蛋白与氧结合的过程呈协同效应,是通过血红蛋白的变构现象来实现的。它的辅基是血红素。由组织产生的二氧化碳扩散至红细胞,从而影响血红蛋白和氧气的亲和力,这称为波尔效应。
◆◎     胶原蛋白是由3股肽链组成的超螺旋结构的大分子蛋白,并含有稀有的羟脯氨酸和羟赖氨酸,它们是在翻译后经羟化加工而形成的。
◆◎     胰岛素是胰岛-β-细胞分泌的多肽激素,是由前胰岛素原经专一性蛋白水解,失去N端信号肽成为胰岛素原。再经肽酶激活失去C肽,最后形成具有生物活性的胰岛素。
◆◎     横纹肌的结构蛋白主要是肌动蛋白和肌球蛋白。它们各自通过线性缔合而成细肌丝和粗肌丝,肌肉的运动和肌原纤维的收缩就是这两种丝相互滑动的结果。
◆◎     多聚L-谷氨酸的比旋随PH改变是因为构象改变,L-谷氨酸的比旋随PH改变是因为电荷不同。
◆◎     蛋白的磷酸化位点有丝氨酸、苏氨酸、酪氨酸。
◆◎     氨基酸定量分析的经典方法是茚三酮。氨基酸序列测定中最普遍的方法是PITC法。
◆◎     内质网膜的表面附着大量核糖体是肽链合成的场所,内质网膜的腔内是新生肽链折叠、修饰的场所。高尔基体的主要功能是糖蛋白的肽链修饰和蛋白分类及细胞定位。
◆◎     分离蛋白混合物的方法主要是根据蛋白的下列性质:分自大小、溶解度、电荷、吸附作用/对其它分子的亲和力。
◆◎     蛋白的磷酸化是可逆的,蛋白磷酸化需要蛋白激酶,蛋白去磷酸化需要蛋白磷酸酯酶。
◎     骨骼肌肉的收缩主要由两种收缩蛋白肌动蛋白和肌球蛋白以及两种跳进蛋白肌钙蛋白和凝血酶原所完成。
◆◎     真核细胞中已合成的蛋白质通过内质网膜运输时有信号肽、信号识别颗粒、停泊蛋白、信号肽酶等参与识别和运输作用。
◆◎     免疫球蛋白G在用木瓜蛋白酶处理时,可产生Fab片段,在用胃蛋白酶处理时,可产生Fab’2片段。
◆◎     氨基酸脱羧酶需要磷酸吡哆醛作为辅酶,丝氨酸转羟甲基酶需要四氢叶酸作为辅酶。
◆◎     蛋白激酶对糖代谢的调节在于调节糖原磷酸化酶和糖原合成酶。
◆◎     酶可以分位六大类:氧化还原酶、转移酶、水解酶、裂合酶、异构酶、连接酶合成酶
◆◎     用酶偶联法测定果糖-6-磷酸激酶的活性可以用醛缩酶、丙酮酸异构酶和甘油磷酸异构酶和NADH测定340nm光吸收的变化;也可以用磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸激酶、乳酸脱氢酶和NADH测定340nm光吸收的变化。
◆◎     果糖磷酸激酶催化F-6-P和ATP生成F-1,6-P。其逆反应由果糖-1,6-二磷酸酯酶催化。逆向反应和正向反应不是同一个酶催化,构成了一个循环称底物循环。
◆◎     在动物组织中蛋白激酶就其底物磷酸化的残基种类,可分为三类:Ser/Thr、Tyr、Ser/Thr/Tyr蛋白激酶,而在微生物中还发现His残基的蛋白激酶。
◆◎     一个有效的自杀性一直应具备:⑴无酶不反应;⑵为靶酶专一激活;⑶与靶酶反应比解离更迅速。
◆◎     酶与酶或酶与蛋白相互作用是广泛存在的,如酶与抗体,酶蛋白与蛋白激酶,酶与蛋白类激活剂或抑制剂,除此之外有蛋白水解酶对蛋白质的降解,凝血过程中各个因子形成的级联反应,补体系统中各组分的相互作用,信号转导过程中诸多蛋白质质间的相互作用,肌肉中各组分间的相互作用。
◆◎     生物体内有一些核苷酸衍生物可作为辅酶而作用,如NAD+、NADP+、FAD、CoA。
◆◎     一些生长因子有酶的活性,如表皮生长因子(GEF)受体有蛋白酪氨酸激酶活性,转化生长因子β(TGFβ)受体有蛋白有丝氨酸/苏氨酸激酶活性。
◆◎     核酸分子中含有嘌呤碱、嘧啶碱,所以对波长260nm的光有强烈的吸收。
◆◎     转移核糖核酸一般是由74个到85个核苷酸所组成。
◆◎     真核生物染色体DNA的主要结构特点是内含子和重复序列。
◆◎     细菌氨基酸饥饿时,rRNA的合成受到ppGpp、ppGppp的调节,其合成是由空载tRNA引起的。
◆◎     核苷酸生物合成时,从IMP(肌苷酸)转变为AMP经过腺苷酰琥珀酸,转变为GMP经过黄嘌呤核苷酸(XMP)。
◆◎     作为克隆载体的质粒须具备的条件有:复制起点、筛选标记、在非功能区的单一酶切位点。
◆◎     核苷三磷酸在代谢中起重要作用。ATP是能量和磷酸基团转移的重要物质,UTP参与单糖转变和多糖合成,CTP卵磷脂合成,GTP供给肽链合成时所需的能量。
◎     A5’pppp5’A经蛇毒磷酸二酯酶部分酶解可以产生ATP和AMP。
◆◎     造成一个单顺反子产生多种蛋白质的原因有:基因重排、选择性拼接和RNA编辑。
◆◎     真核生物tRNA的加工有剪切、修饰、剪接、接CCA、编辑。
◆◎     snRNA主要参与mRNA的加工成熟,snoRNA主要参与rRNA的加工成熟。
◆◎     已知核糖体失活蛋白有两类,它们分别具有位点专一性的N-糖苷酶和磷酸二酯酶活性。
◆◎     纤维素和直链淀粉都是葡萄糖的多聚物,在纤维素中葡萄糖的构型是β-吡喃,连接方式为1→4连接;在直链淀粉中葡萄糖的构型是α-吡喃,连接方式为1→4连接。
◆◎     辛基葡萄糖可以用来增溶膜蛋白。
◆◎     直链淀粉是一种多糖,它的基本单位是α-D-葡萄糖,它们以1→4糖苷键连接;纤维素也是一种多糖,它的基本单位是β-D-葡萄糖,它们以1→4糖苷键连接。
◆◎     在脂肪酸的分解代谢过程中,长链脂酰辅酶A以脂酰肉碱的形式运到线粒体内,经过β-氧化作用,生成乙酰辅酶A,参加三羧酸循环。
◆◎     用于膜蛋白研究的去垢剂应具备的性质是亲水亲脂平衡值大于15,临界团粒浓度高。
◆◎     研究放射性同位素标记的配基与膜上受体结合常用的方法有:平衡透析、超离心、凝胶过滤、超滤。
◆◎     脑下垂体分泌的属于糖蛋白激素有促卵泡激素、促甲状腺激素、促黄体生成激素。
◆◎     维生素A是萜类化合物;维生素C是糖类化合物;维生素D是固醇类化合物。
◆◎     视紫红蛋白的辅基是11-顺视黄醛。
◆◎     生物体内关键的三个中间代谢物是:6-磷酸葡萄糖、丙酮酸、乙酰CoA。
◆◎     在糖异声作用中由丙酮酸生成磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸,在线粒体内丙酮酸生成草酰乙酸是丙酮酸羧化酶催化的,同时消耗1ATP;然后在细胞质内经磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧化酶催化,生成磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸,同时消耗1GTP。
◆◎     生物工程主要包括:发酵工程、基因工程、细胞工程、蛋白质工程、糖工程。
◆◎     NO是最小的信号分子,其主要功能有:⑴改变cGMP水平参与神经递质信号转导;⑵抑制血小板凝集,⑶激活DNA修复酶;⑷高浓度时促进前列腺素合成;⑸引起细胞衰老和死亡。


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       Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Winners 2000-1901
           brought to you by The  Nobel  Prize  Internet  Archive
2000    The prize was awarded jointly to:
ARVID CARLSSON, PAUL GREENGARD and ERIC KANDEL for their discoveries concerning   signal transduction in the nervous system.
1999   The prize was awarded to: GÜNTER BLOBEL, for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell.
1998   The prize was awarded jointly to: ROBERT F. FURCHGOTT, LOUIS J. IGNARRO and FERID MURAD for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system.
1997    STANLEY B. PRUSINER for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of  infection
1996    The prize was awarded jointly to: PETER C. DOHERTY and ROLF M. ZINKERNAGEL for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence.
1995   The prize was awarded jointly to: EDWARD B. LEWIS, CHRISTIANE NSLEIN-VOLHARD and ERIC F. WIESCHAUS for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development.
1994   The prize was awarded jointly to: ALFRED G. GILMAN and MARTIN RODBELL for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells.
1993   The prize was awarded jointly to: RICHARD J. ROBERTS and PHILLIP A. SHARP for their independent discoveries of split genes.
1992   The prize was awarded jointly to: EDMOND H. FISCHER and EDWIN G. KREBS for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism.
1991   The prize was awarded jointly to: ERWIN NEHER and BERT SAKMANN for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells.
1990    The prize was awarded jointly to: JOSEPH E. MURRAY and E. DONNALL THOMAS for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease.
1989   The prize was awarded jointly to: J. MICHAEL BISHOP and HAROLD E. VARMUS for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes.
1988   The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR JAMES W. BLACK , GERTRUDE B. ELION and GEORGE H. HITCHINGS for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment.
1987    SUSUMU TONEGAWA for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity.
1986   The prize was awarded jointly to: STANLEY COHEN and RITA LEVI-MONTALCINI for their discoveries of growth factors.
1985   The prize was awarded jointly to: MICHAEL S. BROWN and JOSEPH L. GOLDSTEIN for their discoveries concerning the  regulation of cholesterol metabolism.
1984   The prize was awarded jointly to:  NIELS K. JERNE , GEORGES J.F. KLER and CAR MILSTEIN for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies.
1983   BARBARA MC CLINTOCK for her discovery of mobile genetic elements.
1982   The prize was awarded jointly to: SUNE K. BERGSTR , BENGT I. SAMUELSSON and SIR JOHN R. VANE for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances.
1981   The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to:ROGER W. SPERRY for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres.and the other half awarded jointly to:DAVID H. HUBEL and TORSTEN N. WIESEL for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system.
1980   The prize was awarded jointly to: BARUJ BENACERRAF , JEAN DAUSSET and GEORGE D. SNELL for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions.
1979   The prize was awarded jointly to: ALAN M. CORMACK and SIR GODFREY N. HOUNSFIELD for the development of computer assisted tomography.
1978    The prize was awarded jointly to::WERNER ARBER , DANIEL NATHANS nd HAMILTON O. SMITH for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics.
1977    The prize was divided equally, one half awarded jointly to: ROGER GUILLEMIN and ANDREW V. SCHALLY for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain and the other half awarded to: ROSALYN YALOW for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones.
1976   The prize was awarded jointly to: BARUCH S. BLUMBERG and D. CARLETON GAJDUSEK for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases.
1975    The prize was awarded jointly to: DAVID BALTIMORE , RENATO DULBECCO and HOWARD MARTIN TEMIN for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell.
1974    The prize was awarded jointly to: ALBERT CLAUDE , CHRISTIAN DE DUVE and GEORGE E. PALADE for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell.
1973    The prize was awarded jointly to: KARL VON FRISCH , KONRAD LORENZ and NIKOLAAS TINBERGEN for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns.
1972    The prize was awarded jointly to: GERALD M. EDELMAN and RODNEY R. PORTER for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies.
1971   EARL W. JR. SUTHERLAND for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the
action of hormones.
1970     The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR BERNARD KATZ , ULF VON EULER and JULIUS AXELROD for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation.
1969     The prize was awarded jointly to: MAX DELBRK , ALFRED D. HERSHEY and SALVADOR E. LURIA for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the gentic structure of viruses.
1968     The prize was awarded jointly to: ROBERT W. HOLLEY , HAR GOBIND KHORANA and MARSHALL W. NIRENBERG for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.
1967    The prize was awarded jointly to: RAGNAR GRANIT , HALDAN KEFFER HARTLINE and GEORGE WALD for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye.
1966       The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to: PEYTON ROUS for his discovery of tumorinducing viruses and the other half to:CHARLES BRENTON HUGGINS for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of  prostatic cancer.
1965       The prize was awarded jointly to: FRANIS JACOB , ANDR?/font> LWOFF and JACOUES MONOD for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis.
1964     The prize was awarded jointly to: KONRAD BLOCH and FEODOR LYNEN for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.
1963      The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR JOHN CAREW ECCLES , SIR ALAN LLOYD HODGKIN and SIR ANDREW FIELDING HUXLEY for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane.
1962       The prize was awarded jointly to: FRANCIS HARRY COMPTON CRICK , JAMES DEWEY WATSON and MAURICE HUGH FREDERICK WILKINS for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nuclear acids and its significance for information transfer in living material.
1961      GEORG VON BY for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea.
1960     The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR FRANK MACFARLANE BURNET and SIR PETER BRIAN MEDAWAR for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance.
1959      The prize was awarded jointly to: SEVERO OCHOA and ARTHUR KORNBERG for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxiribonucleic acid.
1958      The prize was divided equally, one half awarded jointly to: GEORGE WELLS BEADLE and EDWARD LAWRIE TATUM for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events and the other half to: JOSHUA LEDERBERG for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria.
1957      DANIEL BOVET for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles.
1956      The prize was awarded jointly to: ANDR font  FRIC COURNAND , WERNER FORSSMANN and DICKINSON W. RICHARDS for their discoveries concerning heart catherization and pathological changes in the circulatory system.
1955      AXEL HUGO THEODOR THEORELL for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes.
1954      The prize was awarded jointly to: JOHN FRANKLIN ENDERS , THOMAS HUCKLE WELLER and FREDERICK CHAPMAN ROBBINS for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of  various types of tissue.
1953      The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to: SIR HANS ADOLF KREBS for his discovery of the citric acid cycle and the other half to:FRITZ ALBERT LIPMANN for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism.
1952      SELMAN ABRAHAM WAKSMAN for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis.
1951      MAX THEILER for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it.
1950      The prize was awarded jointly to: EDWARD CALVIN KENDALL , TADEUS REICHSTEIN and PHILIP SHOWALTER HENCH for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects.
1949     The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to: WALTER RUDOLF HESS for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs and the other half to:ANTONIO CAETANO DE ABREU FREIRE EGAS MONIZ for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses.
1948      PAUL HERMANN MLER for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arth ropods.
1947      The prize was divided, one half awarded jointly to: CARL FERDINAND CORI and GERTY THERESA CORI nRADNITZ for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen and the other half awarded to: BERNARDO ALBERTO HOUSSAY for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar.
1946      HERMANN JOSEPH MULLER for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation.
1945      The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR ALEXANDER FLEMING , SIR ERNST BORIS CHAIN and LORD HOWARD WALTER FLOREY for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases.
1944      The prize was awarded jointly to JOSEPH ERLANGER and HERBERT SPENCER GASSER for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres.
1943      The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to: HENRIK CARL PETER DAM for his discovery of vitamin K. and the other half to:EDWARD ADELBERT DOISY for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K.
1942-1940         The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.
1939      GERHARD DOMAGK for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil. (Caused by the authorities of his country to decline the award, but later received the diploma and the medal.)
1938    CORNEILLE JEAN FRANIS HEYMANS for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration.
1937      ALBERT SZENT-GGYI VON NAGYRAPOLT for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the  catalysis of fumaric acid.
1936      The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR HENRY HALLETT DALE and OTTO LOEWI for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses.
1935      HANS SPEMANN for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development.
1934      The prize was awarded jointly to: GEORGE HOYT WHIPPLE , GEORGE RICHARDS MINOT and WILLIAM PARRY MURPHY for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia.
1933      THOMAS HUNT MORGAN for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity.
1932      The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR CHARLES SCOTT SHERRINGTON and LORD EDGAR DOUGLAS ADRIAN for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons.
1931      OTTO HEINRICH WARBURG for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme.
1930      KARL LANDSTEINER for his discovery of human blood groups.
1929      The prize was divided equally, one half awarded to: CHRISTIAAN EIJKMAN for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin and the other half awarded to:SIR FREDERICK GOWLAND HOPKINS for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins.
1928      CHARLES JULES HENRI NICOLLE for his work on typhus.
1927       JULIUS WAGNER-JAUREGG for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica.
1926      JOHANNES ANDREAS GRIB FIBIGER for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma.
1925      The prize money for 1925 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
1924      WILLEM EINTHOVEN for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram.
1923      SIR FREDERICK GRANT BANTING and JOHN JAMES RICHARD MACLEOD for the discovery of insulin.
1922      The prize was divided equally between: SIR ARCHIBALD VIVIAN HILL for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle and OTTO FRITZ MEYERHOF for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactid acid in the muscle.
1921      The prize money for 1921 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
1920       SCHACK AUGUST STEENBERGER KROGH for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism.
1919      JULES BORDET for his discoveries  relating to immunity.
1918-1915      The prize money for 1918-1915 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
1914     ROBERT BY for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus.
1913       CHARLES ROBERT RICHET in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis.
1912      ALEXIS CARREL in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood-vessels and organs.
1911      ALLVAR GULLSTRAND for his work on the dioptrics of the eye.
1910      ALBRECHT KOSSEL in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances.
1909      EMIL THEODOR KOCHER for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland.
1908      The prize was awarded jointly to: ILYA ILYICH MECHNIKOV and PAUL EHRLICH in recognition of their work on immunity.
1907     CHARLES LOUIS ALPHONSE LAVERAN in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases.
1906     The prize was awarded jointly to: CAMILLO GOLGI and SANTIAGO RAMON Y CAJAL in recognition of their work on the stucture of the nervous system.
1905     ROBERT KOCH for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis.
1904     IVAN PETROVICH PAVLOV in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged.
1903       NIELS RYBERG FINSEN in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science.
1902     SIR RONALD ROSS for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful resesarch on this disease and methods of combating it.
1901      EMIL ADOLF VON BEHRING for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths.

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