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A comparative research on the menta(10)

时间:2005-07-07 17:17来源:本站原创 作者:zp0218 阅读:

4.1.4 Common points between novice-proficient teachers

(1) Low level of pre-class plan, after-class evaluation and reflectivity strategies.

(2) Less higher level in affective commitment and normative commitment towards teaching profession.

(3) Less stronger ability in the emotional control and regulation in teaching.

(4) Less contact between teachers and students, lack of a sense of professional achievement.

4.1.5 Common points between proficient-expert teachers

(1) Task goal has become important working motivation.

(2) Having the personality characteristics of easy-going, concern about others, gregarious and tolerant.

4.1.6 Common points among novice-proficient-expert teachers

(1) There wasn’t any difference in after-class compensation strategy, which indicated that making up the missed lesson and guidance after class were common phenomena.

(2) There wasn’t any significant difference in the two dimensions of performance goal, showing it wasn’t the main psychological factor.

(3) There wasn’t any significant difference in extra-introversion. Compared with normality, the teachers’ extraversion was higher than any others, which indicated that extraversion is the essential personality characteristic of teachers.

(4) There wasn’t any difference in continuance commitment and its mean was lower than that of the other dimensions of professional commitment, which indicated that teachers commonly had the perplexity whether they would be continuously engaged in the teaching career.

(5) There wasn’t any significant difference in emotional exhaustion and its score mean was higher than that of the other dimensions of job burnout, showing that teachers had a common feeling of high pressure, high anxiety , utter exhaustion and helplessness.

4.2 The significance to teachers’ education

4.2.1 Promote novice teachers to become proficient and proficient teachers to become expert ones.

(1) Promote novice to become proficient teachers. Our research showed that a good command of basic teaching techniques in the class was the key variable to help novice to be proficient, and the most important psychological factor that influent this change lies two aspects: task goal orientation has become important working motivation and the formation of good psychoticism personality characteristic. Hence we should help teachers to pay attention to teaching’s internal value and acquire the teaching outlook of taking the students as the center. Give full play to their advantage of attaching importance to pre-class preparation and combine it with the in-class strategies, and impel them to acquire the procedure knowledge of regulating teaching behavior in class.

(2) Promote proficient to become expert teachers. Our research showed that high after-class evaluation and reflectivity level were the core variable in the transform from proficient to expert teachers. The most important psychological factor that influent this transform lies in three aspects: the formation of good psychoticism personality characteristic; the high level of affective commitment and normative commitment towards teaching profession ; a strong sense of professional achievement. Hence, we should emphasize the improvement of teachers’ obedience to the needs of the education and of the ability of regulating one’s emotion rationally. We should increase their affective identity towards teaching profession, let them continuously acquire successful experiences. We should change the form of one-way teachers’ training, lay stress on the self-improvement of teaching professional character, and enable proficient teachers to extricate themselves from stagnancy to give their profession a new life. Thus we create more expert teachers.

4.2.2 Attach great importance to solve the psychological problem, which are not good for teachers’ growth.

(1) Devote much attention to solve the job psychological problem that current teachers haven’t high level of professional continuance commitment. Novice, proficient and expert teachers all haven’t a high level of professional continuance commitment, which indicated that quite a number of teachers were willing to quit the career. The phenomenon should be taken seriously by the departments concerned. A reality problem of current teachers’ education is how to improve the teachers’ professional continuance commitment, accelerate their career development and guide them to serve for the educational undertakings all their lives. We should try to support and help them to conquer all these problems based on further research and different reasons.

(2) Pay much attention to solve the job psychological problem that current teachers have a high level of emotional exhaustion in their profession. Emotional exhaustion has a high correlation with professional continuance commitment. Logistic regression analysis show that emotional exhaustion is a predictor to continuance commitment. Hence, we should attach great importance to solve the common psyche problems among the teachers such as stress, anxiety, fatigue and helplessness, and regard them as the focal points in the current metal health education among teachers.

4.2.3 Construct two-phase teachers’ education pattern.

(1) Centering on the mastery of basic teaching procedure, construct a primary teachers’ education pattern—from novice to proficient teachers, enable novice to become proficient teachers as soon as possible.

(2) Centering on the acquisition of evaluated and reflective ability, construct an advanced teachers’ education pattern—from proficient to expert teachers, foster more expert teachers.

4.2.4 Rejuvenate teachers’ teaching concept, clarify focal points of training.

(1) In the light of the characteristics that the three types of teachers all lay stress on after-class compensation, improve individual’s teaching ability.

(2) The indifference of performance goal among the three types of teachers showed they had little influence to teachers’ growth when excessive assessment, appraisal have been used.

(3) In extra-introversion dimension, there was no difference among the three types of teachers, showing having personality characteristic of liveliness and sanguine disposition or not isn’t the important psyche factor to influent teachers’ growth.

(4) In the light of the common and different points in the different development period of novice-proficient-expert teachers, find out the key problems and make efficient training.

5.Conclusion

(1) For the issue of teaching strategies, achievement goal orientation and personality characteristic, expert teachers are better than proficient teachers and proficient teachers are better than novice ones; when it’s turn to the question of profession commitment as well as job burnout , expert teachers are better than novice and proficient teachers, while there was no difference between proficient and novice ones. As far as special dimensions are concerned, there were not only significant differences but also common points.

(2) The main characteristic of novice teachers is that they think highly of pre-class preparation and take performance goal as their important work motivation; the characteristics of proficient teachers are the following: higher in-class teaching strategy level, task goal has become important motivation, possess the personality characteristics of easy-going, concern about others, gregarious, tolerant etc; the characteristics of expert teachers lies in three aspects: taking pre-class planning, after-class evaluation and reflectivity as the core teaching strategies, having the personality characteristic of being stable in emotion, be rational, practical, confident and good in criticism, and the high-profile emotional commitment in the profession of teaching as well as a strong sense of professional achievement also contribute to their main features.

(3)The three types of teachers haven’t significant difference in after-class compensation strategy, performance goal and extra-introversion; no significant difference in continuance commitment and its score is lower than that of other dimensions in professional commitment; no significant difference in affective exhaustion and its score is higher than that of other dimensions in job burnout.

6.Reference

1 Sternberg R J. A Prototype View Of Expert Teaching. Journal Of East China Normal University. 1997,(1):27~37

2 Leinhardt G. Expertise in Mathematics Teaching. Educational Leadership, 1986,3(6): 28~33

3 Livingston C, Borko H. Expert-Novice Differences in Teaching : A Cognitive Analysis and Implications for Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education,1989,40(4): 36~42

4 Carter K. Expert-Novice Differences in Perceiving and Processing Visual Classroom Information. Journal of Teacher Education,1988,39(3): 25~31

5 Gagne E D. The Cognitive Psychology of School Learning. Boston,MA:Little,Brown, 1985.

6 Westerman D A. Expert and Novice Teacher Decision Making. Journal of Teacher Education,1991,2(4): 292~305

7 Yu G L.The Research on Teaching Efficacy and Teaching Behavior of Expert-Intern Teachers (in Chinese). Exploration Of Psychology. 1999,19(2): 32~39

8 Luo X L. The Research on Teaching Efficacy and Teaching regulated ability of Expert-Intern Teachers(in Chinese). Psychological Science. 2000,(6):741~742

9 Berliner DC. The Development of Expertise in pedagogy. American Association of College for Teacher Education, New or leans, La, 1988, February 17

10 Burden P R. Teachers perceptions of the characteristic and influences on their personal and professional development (Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1979). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1980, 40 (5404A)

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