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Milestones in Neuroscience Research

时间:2005-04-03 18:07来源:本站原创 作者:bioguider 阅读:

Milestones in Neuroscience Research

Some of the best references for the events that document the history of the neurosciences are:

  1. Afifi, A.K. and Bergman, R.A., Functional Neuroanatomy, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998. The margins of this text are filled with historical facts about the origins of neuroanatomical structures and discoveries.
  2. Bennett, M.R., The early history of the synapse: From Plato to Sherrington, Brain Research Bulletin, 50:95-118, 1999.
  3. Brazier, M.A.B., A History of the Electrical Activity of the Brain, London: Pitman, 1961.
  4. Brazier, M.A.B., A History of Neurophysiology in the 19th Century, New York: Raven Press, 1988.
  5. Clarke, E. and Dewhurst, K., An Illustrated History of Brain Function, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972.
  6. Clarke, E. and C.D. O'Malley, C.D., The Human Brain and Spinal Cord, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968.
  7. Finger, S., Origins of Neuroscience, New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
  8. Finger, S. Minds Behind the Brain: A History of the Pioneers and Their Discoveries, New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  9. Francis, R.L., The Illustrated Almanac of Science Technology and Invention, New York: Plenum Press, 1997.
  10. Gross, C.G., Brain, Vision, Memory. Tales in the History of Neuroscience, Cambridge, MIT Press, 1998.
  11. Harding, A.S., Milestones in Health and Medicine, Phoenix (AZ) Oryx Press, 2000.
  12. Kandel, E.R. and Squire, L.R., Neuroscience: Breaking Down Scientific Barriers to the Study of Brain and Mind, in Science, 290:1113-1120, 2000.
  13. Marshall, L.H. and Magoun, H.W., Discoveries in the Human Brain, Totowa; Humana Press, 1998.
  14. Martensen, R.L., The Brain Takes Shape. An Early History, New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2004.
  15. Millon, T., Masters of the Mind. Exploring the Story of Mental Illness from Ancient Times to the New Millennium, Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley and Sons, 2004.
  16. Rose, F.C. and Bynum, W.F., Historical Aspects of the Neurosciences. A Festschrift for Macdonald Critchely, New York: Raven Press, 1982.
  17. Sebastian, A. Dates in Medicine. A Chronological Record of Medical Progress Over Three Millennia, New York: The Parthenon Publishing Group, 2000
  18. Shepherd, G.M., Foundations of the Neuron Doctrine, New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
  19. Swartz, B.E. and Goldenshon, E.S., Timeline of the history of EEG and associated fields, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol., 106:173-176, 1998.

Image courtesy of the National Library of Medicine

The following dates and events were gathered from several sources. These events are certainly not all of the important events to take place in neuroscience...just some of the ones that I have selected.

 

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4000 B.C. to 0 A.D

ca. 4000 B.C. - Euphoriant effect of poppy plant reported in Sumerian records
ca. 4000 B.C. - Clay tablets from Mesopotamia discuss how to use alcohol to dilute medicine
ca. 2700 B.C. - Shen Nung originates acupuncture
ca. 1700 B.C. - Edwin Smith surgical papyrus written. First written record about the nervous system
ca. 500 B.C. - Alcmaion of Crotona dissects sensory nerves
ca. 500 B.C. - Alcmaion of Crotona describes the optic nerve
460-379 B.C. - Hippocrates discusses epilepsy as a disturbance of the brain
460-379 B.C. - Hippocrates states that the brain is involved with sensation and is the seat of intelligence
387 B.C. - Plato teaches at Athens. Believes brain is seat of mental process
335 B.C. - Aristotle writes about sleep; believes heart is seat of mental process
335-280 B.C. - Herophilus (the "Father of Anatomy"); believes ventricles are seat of human intelligence
280 B.C. - Erasistratus of Chios notes divisions of the brain

Hippocrates

Image courtesy of the Blocker History of Medicine Collections, Moody Medical Library, Univ. Texas Med. Branch, Galveston


0 A.D. to 1500

177 - Galen lecture "On the Brain"
ca. 100 - Marinus describes the tenth cranial nerve
ca. 100 - Rufus of Ephesus describes and names the optic chiasm.
ca. 1000 - Alhazen compares the eye to a camera-like device
1316 - Mondino de'Luzzi writes the first European anatomy textbook (Anothomia)
1402 - St. Mary of Bethlehem Hospital is used exclusively for the mentally ill
1410 - Institution for the mentally ill established in Valencia, Spain

Image courtesy of the National Library of Medicine,
History of Medicine Collection


1500 - 1600

1504 - Leonardo da Vinci produces wax cast of human ventricles
1536 - Nicolo Massa describes the cerebrospinal fluid
1538 - Andreas Vesalius publishes Tabulae Anatomicae
1543 - Andreas Vesalius publishes "On the Workings of the Human Body"
1543 - Andreas Vesalius discusses pineal gland and draws the corpus striatum
1550 - Vesalius describes hydrocephalus
1550 - Bartolomeo Eustachio describes the brain origin of the optic nerves
1561 - Gabriele Falloppio publishes "Observationes Anatomicae" and describes some of the cranial nerves. Separate trochlear and abducens nerves identified
1562 - Bartolomeo Eustachio publishes "The Examination of the Organ of Hearing"
1564 - Aranzi coins the term "hippocampus"
1573 - Constanzo Varolio names the pons
1573 - Constanzo Varolio is first to cut brain starting at its base
1573 - Girolamo Mercuriali writes De nervis opticis to describe optic nerve anatomy
1583 - Felix Platter states that the lens only focuses light and that the retina is where images are formed
1586 - A. Piccolomini distinguishes between cortex and white matter
1587 - Giulio Cesare Aranzi describes ventricles and hippocampus. He also demonstrates that the retina has a reversed image
1590 - Zacharias Janssen invents the compound microscope
1596 - Sir Walter Raleigh mentions arrow poison in his book Discovery of the Large, Rich and Beautiful Empire of Guiana

Leonardo Da Vinci


Andreas Vesalius

Image courtesy of the Blocker History of Medicine Collections, Moody Medical Library, Univ. Texas Med. Branch, Galveston


(责任编辑:泉水)

1600 - 1700

1604 - Johannes Kepler describes inverted retinal image
1609 - J. Casserio publishes first description of mammillary bodies
1611 - Lazarus Riverius textbook describing impairments on consciousness published
1621 - Robert Burton publishes The Anatomy of Melancholy about depression
1623 - Benito Daca de Valdes publishes the first book on vision testing and eyeglass-fitting
1641 - Franciscus de la Boe Sylvius describes fissure on the lateral surface of the brain (Sylvian fissure)
1649 - Rene Descartes describes pineal as control center of body and mind
1650 - Franciscus de la Boe Sylvius describes a narrow passage between the third and fourth ventricles (the aqueduct of Sylvius)
1658 - Johann Jakof Wepfer theorizes that a broken brain blood vessel may cause apoplexy (stroke)
1661 - Thomas Willis describes a case of meningitis
1662 - Rene Descartes "De homine" is published (He died in 1650)
1664 - Thomas Willis publishes "Cerebri anatome" (in Latin)
1664 - Thomas Willis describes the eleventh cranial nerve (accessory nerve)
1664 - Gerardus Blasius discovers and names the "arachnoid"
1665 - Robert Hooke details his first microscope
1667 - Robert Hooke publishes "Micrographia"
1668 - l'Abbe Edme Mariotte discovers the blind spot
1670 - William Molins names the trochlear nerve
1673 - Joseph DuVerney uses experimental ablation technique in pigeons
1681 - English edition of Thomas Willis' "Cerebri anatome" was published
1681 - Thomas Willis coins the term Neurology
1684 - Raymond Vieussens publishes "Neurographia Universalis"
1684 - Raymond Vieussens uses boiling oil to harden the brain
1686 - Thomas Sydenham describes a form of chorea in children and young adults
1695 - Humphrey Ridley describes the restiform body
1695 - Humphrey Ridley publishes "The Anatomy of the Brain"
1696 - John Locke writes "Essay Concerning Human Understanding"
1697 - Joseph G. Duverney introduces the term "brachial plexus"
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