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Milestones in Neuroscience Research(4)

时间:2005-04-03 18:07来源:本站原创 作者:bioguider 阅读:

John Hughlings Jackson
Image courtesy of the National Library of Medicine, History of Medicine Collection

Charles Darwin

Hermann von Helmholtz

Jean-Martin Charcot

Claude Bernard
Images courtesy of the Blocker History of Medicine Collections, Moody Medical Library, Univ. Texas Med. Branch, Galveston


Camillo Golgi
Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine.

 

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(责任编辑:泉水)

1900 - 1950

1900 - Sigmund Freud publishes The Interpretation of Dreams
1900 - Charles Scott Sherrington states that cerebellum is head ganglion of the proprioceptive system
1900 - M. Lewandowsky coins the term "blood-brain barrier" (Bluthirnschranke) [ref: Aschner and Kerper, Mol. Biol. and Tox. of Metals, 2000]
1902 - Julius Bernstein proposes membrane theory for cells
1902 - Physiologist Ida Hyde is the first woman elected to the American Physiological Society
1903 - Ivan Pavlov coins the term conditioned reflex
1903 - Alfred Walter Campbell studies cytoarchitecture of anthropoid cerebral cortex
1904 - Procaine is synthesized
1905 - Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon have their first intelligence test
1905 - John Newport Langley coins the phrase "parasympathetic nervous system"
1906 - Alois Alzheimer describes presenile degeneration
1906 - Golgi and Cajal-Nobel Prize-Structure of the Nervous System
1906 - Sir Charles Scott Sherrington publishes The Integrative Action of the Nervous system that describes the synapse and motor cortex
1907 - Ross Granville Harrison describes tissue culture methods
1907 - John Newport Langley introduces the concept of receptor molecules
1908 - Vladimir Bekhterew describes the superior nucleus of the vestibular nerve (Bekhterew's nucleus)
1908 - Victor Alexander Haden Horsley and Robert Henry Clarke design stereotaxic instrument
1908 - Willem Einthoven makes string galvanometer recordings from the vagus nerve
1909 - Harvey Cushing is first to electrically stimulate human sensory cortex
1909 - Korbinian Brodmann describes 52 discrete cortical areas
1909 - Karl Jaspers publishes "General Mental Illness"
1910 - Emil Kraepelin names Alzheimer's disease
1911 - Allvar Gullstrand-Nobel Prize-Optics of the eye
1911 - Eugen Bleuler coins the term schizophrenia
1911 - George Barger and Henry Dale discover norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
1913 - Santiago Ramon y Cajal develops gold chloride-mercury stain to show astrocytes
1913 - Edwin Ellen Goldmann finds blood brain barrier impermeable to large molecules
1913 - Edgar Douglas Adrian publishes work on all-or-none principle in nerve
1913 - Walter Samuel Hunter devises delayed-response test
1914 - Robert Barany-Nobel Prize-Vestibular apparatus
1914 - Henry H. Dale isolates acetylcholine
1915 - J.G. Dusser De Barenne describes activity of brain after strychnine application
1915 - Aspirin becomes available without a prescription
1916 - Richard Henneberg coins the term cataplexy
1916 - George Guillain, Jean Alexander Barre and Andre Strohl describe an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (Guillain-Barre Syndrome)
1918 - Walter E. Dandy introduces the ventriculography
1919 - Cecile Vogt describes over 200 cortical areas
1919 - Walter E. Dandy introduces the air encephalography
1919 - Gordon Morgan Holmes localizes vision to striate area
1919 - Pio del Rio Hortega divides neuroglia into microglia and oligodendroglia
1920 - Society of Neurological Surgeons is founded
1920 - Henry Head publishes "Studies in Neurology"
1920 - Stephen Walter Ranson demonstrates connections between the hypothalamus and pituitary
1921 - Otto Loewi publishes work on Vagusstoff
1921 - Hermann Rorschach develops the inkblot test
1921 - John Augustus Larsen and Leonard Keeler develop the polygraph
1921 - del Rio Hortega describes microglia
1922 - Army Medical Library established (was the Library of the Surgeon General's Office)
1924 - Charles Scott Sherrington discovers the stretch reflex
1925 - C. von Economo and G.N. Koskinas revise Brodmann's cortical nomenclature of the cerebral cortex
1926 - Percival Bailey and Harvey Cushing publish paper describing more the 2,000 neuroepithelial neoplasms
1927 - Chester William Darrow studies galvanic skin reflex in US
1928 - Philip Bard suggests the neural mechanism of rage is in the diencephalon
1928 - Walter Rudolph Hess reports "affective responses" to hypothalamic stimulation
1928 - John Fulton publishes his observations (made in 1926 and 1928) of the sounds of blood flowing over the human visual cortex
1929 - Hans Berger publishes his findings about the first human electroencephalogram
1929 - Karl Lashley defines "equipotentiality" and "mass action"
1927 - J. Wagner-Jauregg - Nobel Prize-Malaria to treat dementia paralyses
1928 - Edgar Douglas Adrian publishes The Basis of Sensation
1929 - Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser publish work on the correlation of nerve fiber size and function
1929 - Walter B. Cannon coins the term homeostasis
1930 - John Carew Eccles shows central inhibition of flexor reflexes
1931 - Ulf Svante von Euler and J.H. Gaddum discover substance P
1932 - Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska invent the electron microscope
1932 - Jan Friedrich Tonnies develops multichannel ink-writing EEG machine
1932 - Edgar Douglas Adrian and Charles S. Sherrington share Nobel Prize for work on the function of neurons
1932 - Jan Friedrich Toennies and Brian Matthews design the differential amplifier
1932 - Smith, Kline and French introduce the first amphetamine, Benzedrine
1933 - Ralph Waldo Gerard describes first experimental evoked potentials
1934 - S. Howard Bartley performs studies on cortical visual evoked potentials in rabbits
1935 - Dexedrine (an amphetamine) introduced to treat narcolepsy
1935 - Frederic Bremer uses cerveau isole preparation to study sleep
1936 - Egas Moniz publishes work on the first human frontal lobotomy
1936 - Henry Hallett Dale and Otto Loewi share Nobel Prize for work on the chemical transmission between nerves
1936 - Walter Freeman performs first lobotomy in the United States
1937 - James Papez publishes work on limbic circuit
1936 - Massachusetts General Hospital has first EEG laboratory
1937 - Heinrich Kluver and Paul Bucy publish work on bilateral temporal lobectomies
1937 - James W. Papez develops "visceral theory" of emotion
1937 - John Zachary Young suggests that the squid giant axon can be used to understand nerve cells
1938 - Isador Rabi coins term "magnetic resonance"
1938 - B.F. Skinner publishes "The Behavior of Organisms" that describes operant conditioning
1938 - Albert Hofmann synthesizes LSD
1938 - Ugo Cerletti and Lucino Bini treat human patients with electroshock
1938 - Franz Kallmann publishes "The Genetics of Schizophrenia"
1939 - Carl Pfaffman describes directionally sensitive cat mechanoreceptors
1939 - Nathaniel Kleitman publishes Sleep and Wakefulness
1942 - Stephen Kuffler develops the single nerve-muscle fiber preparation
1943 - John Raymond Brobeck describes hypothalamic hyperphasia
1944 - Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser share Nobel Prize for work on the functions of single nerve fiber
1946 - Theodor Rasmussen describes the olivocochlear bundle (bundle of Rasmussen)
1946 - President Truman signs the National Mental Health Act
1947 - The American EEG Society is founded
1948 - The World Health Organization is founded
1949 - Kenneth Cole develops the voltage clamp
1949 - A.C.A.F. Egas Moniz-Nobel Prize-Leucotomy to treat certain psychoses
1949 - Walter Rudolph Hess receives Nobel Prize for work on the "Interbrain"
1949 - Horace Winchell Magoun defines the reticular activating system
1949 - John Cade discovers that lithium is an effective treatment for bipolar depression
1949 - Giuseppi Moruzzi and Horace Winchell Magoun publish Brain Stem Reticular Formation and Activation of the EEG
1949 - National Institute of Mental Health was formally established
1949 - Donald Olding Hebb publishes The Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory
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