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Milestones in Neuroscience Research(2)

时间:2005-04-03 18:07来源:本站原创 作者:bioguider 阅读:

Thomas Willis

Image courtesy of the Blocker History of Medicine Collections, Moody Medical Library, Univ. Texas Med. Branch, Galveston

 

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1700 - 1800

1704 - Antonio Valsalva publishes "On the Human Ear"
1705 - Antonio Pacchioni describes arachnoid granulations
1709 - Domenico Mistichelli describes pyramidal decussation
1709 - George Berkeley publishes New Theory of Vision
1717 - Antony van Leeuwenhoek describes nerve fiber in cross section
1721 - The word "anesthesia" first appears in English (in Dictionary Britannicum)
1736 - Jean Astruc coins the term reflex
1740 - Emanuel Swedenborg publishes "Oeconomia regni animalis"
1749 - David Hartley publishes Observations of Man, the first English work using the word "psychology."
1752 - The Society of Friends establishes a hospital-based environment for the mentally ill in Philadelphia
1755 - J.B. Le Roy uses electroconvulsive therapy for mental illness
1760 - Arne-Charles Lorry demonstrates that damage to the cerebellum affects motor coordination
1764 - Domenico F.A. Cotugno describes spinal subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid; shows that ventricular and spinal fluids are connected
1764 - The interventricular foramen (Foramen of Monroe) is named after Alexander Monroe; it was described earlier by Vieussens
1766 - Albrecht von Haller provides scientific description of the cerebrospinal fluid
1772 - John Walsh conducts experiments on torpedo (electric) fish
1773 - John Fothergill describes trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux, Fothergill's syndrome)
1773 - Sir Joseph Priestley discovers nitrous oxide
1774 - Franz Anton Mesmer introduces "animal magnetism" (later called hypnosis)
1776 - M.V.G. Malacarne publishes first book solely devoted to the cerebellum
1777 - Philip Meckel proposes that the inner ear is filled with fluid, not air
1778 - Samuel Thomas von Sommerring presents the modern classification of 12 cranial nerves
1779 - Antonius Scarpa describes Scarpa's ganglion of the vestibular system
1781 - Felice Fontana describes the microscopic features of axoplasm from an axon
1782 - Francesco Gennari publishes work on "lineola albidior" (later known as the stripe of Gennari)
1782 - Francesco Buzzi identifies the fovea
1783 - Alexander Monro describes the foramen of Monro
1784 - Benjamin Rush writes that alcohol can be an addictive drug
1786 - Felix Vicq d'Azyr discovers the locus coeruleus
1786 - Samuel Thomas Sommering describes the optic chiasm
1790 - Johannes Ehrenritter describes the glossopharygeal nerve ganglion
1791 - Luigi Galvani publishes work on electrical stimulation of frog nerves
1791 - Samuel Thomas von Soemmering names the macula lutea of the retina
1794 - John Dalton describes color blindness
1796 - Johann Christian Reil describes the insula (island of Reil)

Antony van Leeuwenhoek


Franz Anton Mesmer

Images courtesy of the Blocker History of Medicine Collections, Moody Medical Library, Univ. Texas Med. Branch, Galveston


1800 - 1850

1800 - Alessandro Volta invents the wet cell battery
1800 - Humphrey Davy synthesizes nitrous oxide
1800 - Samuel von Sommering identifies black material in the midbrain and calls it the "substantia nigra"
1801 - Thomas Young describes astigmatism
1801 - Adam Friedrich Wilhelm Serturner crystalizes opium and obtains morphine
1805 - Felix Vicq d'Azyr discovers the red nucleus
1808 - Franz Joseph Gall publishes work on phrenology
1809 - Johann Christian Reil uses alcohol to harden the brain
1809 - Luigi Rolando uses galvanic current to stimulate cortex
1811 - Julien Jean Legallois discovers respiratory center in medulla
1811 - Charles Bell discusses functional differences between dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal cord
1812 - Benjamin Rush publishes Medical Inquiries and Observations upon the Diseases of the Mind
1813 - Felix Vicq d'Azyr discovers the claustrum
1817 - James Parkinson publishes "An Essay on the Shaking Palsy"
1818 - Library of the Surgeon General's Office established (later to become the Army Medical Library and then the National Library of Medicine)
1820 - Galvanometer invented
1821 - Charles Bell describes facial paralysis ipsilateral to facial nerve lesion (Bell's palsy)
1821 - Francois Magendie discusses functional differences between dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal cord
1822 - Friedrich Burdach names the cingular gyrus
1822 - Friedrich Burdach distinguishes lateral and medial geniculate
1823 - Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens states that cerebellum regulates motor activity
1824 - John C. Caldwell publishes "Elements of Phrenology"
1824 - Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens details ablation to study behavior
1824 - F. Magendie provides first evidence of cerebellum role in equilibration
1825 - John P. Harrison first argues against phrenology
1825 - Jean-Baptiste Bouillaud presents cases of loss of speech after frontal lesions
1825 - Robert B. Todd discusses the role of the cerebral cortex in mentation, corpus striatum in movement and midbrain in emotion
1825 - Luigi Rolando describes the sulcus that separates the precentral and postcentral gyri
1826 - Johannes Muller publishes theory of "specific nerve energies"
1827 - Francois Magendie discovers foramen of Magendie
1827 - E. Merck & Company market morphine
1832 - Justus von Liebig discovers chloral hydrate
1832 - Jean-Pierre Robiquet isolates codeine
1832 - Massachusetts establishes a "State Lunatic Hospital" for the mentally ill
1833 - Philipp L. Geiger isolates atropine
1836 - Marc Dax reads paper on left hemisphere damage effects on speech
1836 - Gabriel Gustav Valentin identifies neuron nucleus and nucleolus
1836 - Robert Remak describes myelinated and unmyelinated axons
1836 - Charles Dickens (the novelist) describes obstructive sleep apnea
1837 - Jan Purkyne (Purkinje) describes cerebellar cells; identifies neuron nucleus and processes
1837 - The American Physiological Society is founded
1838 - Robert Remak suggests that nerve fiber and nerve cell are joined
1838 - Theordor Schwann describes the myelin-forming cell in the peripheral nervous system ("Schwann Cell")
1838 - Jean-Etienne-Dominique Esquirol publishes "Des Maladies Mentales", possibly the first modern work about mental disorders
1838 - Napoleonic Code leads to the requirement of facilities for the mentally ill
1839 - Theordor Schwann proposes the cell theory
1839 - C. Chevalier coins the term microtome
1839 - Francois Leuret names the Rolandic sulcus for Luigi Rolando
1840 - Adolph Hannover uses chromic acid to harden nervous tissue
1840 - Jules Gabriel Francois Baillarger discusses the connections between white and gray matter of cerebral cortex
1841 - Dorothea Lynde Dix investigates brutality within mental hospitals in the United States
1842 - Benedikt Stilling is first to study spinal cord in serial sections
1842 - Crawford W. Long uses ether on man
1842 - Francois Magendie describes the median opening in the roof of the fourth ventricle (foramen of Magendie)
1843 - James Braid coins the term "hypnosis"
1844 - Robert Remak provides first illustration of 6-layered cortex
1844 - Horace Wells uses nitrous oxide during a tooth extraction
1846 - William Morton demonstrates ether anesthesia at Massachusetts General Hospital
1847 - Chloroform anesthesia used by James Young Simpson
1847 - American Medical Association is founded
1847 - The American Association for the Advancement of Science is founded
1848 - Phineas Gage has his brain pierced by an iron rod
1848 - Richard Owen coins the word "notochord"
1849 - Hermann von Helmholtz measures the speed of frog nerve impulses
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